This document describes how to clone the Contiv repository and then use kubeadm to manually install Kubernetes with Contiv-VPP networking on one or more bare metal or VM hosts.
Clone the Contiv Repository¶
To clone the Contiv repository enter the following command:
git clone https://github.com/contiv/vpp/<repository-name>
The cloned repository has important folders that contain content that are referenced in this Contiv documentation; those folders are noted below:
vpp-contiv2$ ls build build-root doxygen gmod LICENSE Makefile RELEASE.md src build-data docs extras INFO.yaml MAINTAINERS README.md sphinx_venv test
Preparing Your Hosts¶
VmWare VMs: the vmxnet3 driver is required on each interface that will be used by VPP. Please see here for instructions how to install the vmxnet3 driver on VmWare Fusion.
Setting up Network Adapter(s)¶
Setting up DPDK¶
DPDK setup must be completed on each node as follows:
Load the PCI UIO driver:
$ sudo modprobe uio_pci_generic
Verify that the PCI UIO driver has loaded successfully:
$ lsmod | grep uio uio_pci_generic 16384 0 uio 20480 1 uio_pci_generic
Please note that this driver needs to be loaded upon each server bootup, so you may want to add
/etc/modulesfile, or a file in the
/etc/modules-load.d/directory. For example, the
/etc/modulesfile could look as follows:
# /etc/modules: kernel modules to load at boot time. # # This file contains the names of kernel modules that should be loaded # at boot time, one per line. Lines beginning with "#" are ignored. uio_pci_generic
Determining Network Adapter PCI Addresses¶
You need the PCI address of the network interface that VPP will use for the multi-node pod interconnect. On Debian-based
distributions, you can use
$ sudo lshw -class network -businfo Bus info Device Class Description ==================================================== pci@0000:00:03.0 ens3 network Virtio network device pci@0000:00:04.0 ens4 network Virtio network device
Note: On CentOS/RedHat/Fedora distributions,
lshw may not be available by default, install it by issuing the following command:
yum -y install lshw
Installing Kubernetes with Contiv-VPP CNI plugin¶
After the nodes you will be using in your K8s cluster are prepared, you can install the cluster using kubeadm.
(1/4) Installing Kubeadm on Your Hosts¶
For first-time installation, see Installing kubeadm. To update an
existing installation, you should do a
apt-get update && apt-get upgrade
yum update to get the latest version of kubeadm.
On each host with multiple NICs where the NIC that will be used for Kubernetes management traffic is not the one pointed to by the default route out of the host, a custom management network for Kubernetes must be configured.
Using Kubernetes 1.10 and Above¶
In K8s 1.10, support for huge pages in a pod has been introduced. For now, this feature must be either disabled or memory limit must be defined for vswitch container.
To disable huge pages, perform the following steps as root:
Using your favorite editor, disable huge pages in the kubelet configuration file (
/etc/default/kubeletfor version 1.11+):
Restart the kubelet daemon:
systemctl daemon-reload systemctl restart kubelet
To define memory limit, append the following snippet to vswitch container in deployment yaml file:
resources: limits: hugepages-2Mi: 1024Mi memory: 1024Mi
true in helm values.
(2/4) Initializing Your Master¶
Before initializing the master, you may want to remove any previously installed K8s components. Then, proceed with master initialization as described in the kubeadm manual. Execute the following command as root:
kubeadm init --token-ttl 0 --pod-network-cidr=10.1.0.0/16
kubeadm init will autodetect the network interface to advertise
the master on as the interface with the default gateway. If you want to use a
different interface (i.e. a custom management network setup), specify the
--apiserver-advertise-address=<ip-address> argument to kubeadm init. For
kubeadm init --token-ttl 0 --pod-network-cidr=10.1.0.0/16 --apiserver-advertise-address=192.168.56.106
Note: The CIDR specified with the flag
--pod-network-cidr is used by
kube-proxy, and it must include the
PodSubnetCIDR from the
section in the Contiv-vpp config map in Contiv-vpp’s deployment file
contiv-vpp.yaml. Pods in the host network namespace
are a special case; they share their respective interfaces and IP addresses with
the host. For proxying to work properly it is therefore required for services
with backends running on the host to also include the node management IP
--pod-network-cidr subnet. For example, with the default
PodIfIPCIDR=10.2.1.0/24, the subnet
10.3.0.0/16 could be allocated for the management network and
--pod-network-cidr could be defined as
10.0.0.0/8, so as to include IP
addresses of all pods in all network namespaces:
kubeadm init --token-ttl 0 --pod-network-cidr=10.0.0.0/8 --apiserver-advertise-address=10.3.1.1
If Kubernetes was initialized successfully, it prints out this message:
Your Kubernetes master has initialized successfully!
After successful initialization, don’t forget to set up your .kube directory
as a regular user (as instructed by
mkdir -p $HOME/.kube sudo cp -i /etc/kubernetes/admin.conf $HOME/.kube/config sudo chown $(id -u):$(id -g) $HOME/.kube/config
(3/4) Installing the Contiv-VPP Pod Network¶
If you have already used the Contiv-VPP plugin before, you may need to pull the most recent Docker images on each node:
bash <(curl -s https://raw.githubusercontent.com/contiv/vpp/master/k8s/pull-images.sh)
Install the Contiv-VPP network for your cluster as follows:
If you do not use the STN feature, install Contiv-vpp as follows:
kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/contiv/vpp/master/k8s/contiv-vpp.yaml
If you use the STN feature, download the
Then edit the STN configuration as described here. Finally, create the Contiv-vpp deployment from the edited file:
kubectl apply -f ./contiv-vpp.yaml
Beware contiv-etcd data is persisted in
/var/etcd by default. It has to be cleaned up manually after
Otherwise outdated data will be loaded by a subsequent deployment.
You can also generate random subfolder, alternatively:
curl --silent https://raw.githubusercontent.com/contiv/vpp/master/k8s/contiv-vpp.yaml | sed "s/\/var\/etcd\/contiv-data/\/var\/etcd\/contiv-data\/$RANDOM/g" | kubectl apply -f -
After some time, all contiv containers should enter the running state:
root@cvpp:/home/jan# kubectl get pods -n kube-system -o wide | grep contiv NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE ... contiv-etcd-gwc84 1/1 Running 0 14h 192.168.56.106 cvpp contiv-ksr-5c2vk 1/1 Running 2 14h 192.168.56.106 cvpp contiv-vswitch-l59nv 2/2 Running 0 14h 192.168.56.106 cvpp
In particular, make sure that the Contiv-VPP pod IP addresses are the same as
the IP address specified in the
argument to kubeadm init.
Verify that the VPP successfully grabbed the network interface specified in
the VPP startup config (
GigabitEthernet0/4/0 in our case):
$ sudo vppctl vpp# sh inter Name Idx State Counter Count GigabitEthernet0/4/0 1 up rx packets 1294 rx bytes 153850 tx packets 512 tx bytes 21896 drops 962 ip4 1032 host-40df9b44c3d42f4 3 up rx packets 126601 rx bytes 44628849 tx packets 132155 tx bytes 27205450 drops 24 ip4 126585 ip6 16 host-vppv2 2 up rx packets 132162 rx bytes 27205824 tx packets 126658 tx bytes 44634963 drops 15 ip4 132147 ip6 14 local0 0 down
You should also see the interface to kube-dns (
host-40df9b44c3d42f4) and to the
node’s IP stack (
Master Isolation (Optional)¶
By default, your cluster will not schedule pods on the master for security reasons. If you want to be able to schedule pods on the master, (e.g., for a single-machine Kubernetes cluster for development), then run:
kubectl taint nodes --all node-role.kubernetes.io/master-
More details about installing the pod network can be found in the kubeadm manual.
(4/4) Joining Your Nodes¶
To add a new node to your cluster, run as root the command that was output by kubeadm init. For example:
kubeadm join --token <token> <master-ip>:<master-port> --discovery-token-ca-cert-hash sha256:<hash>
More details can be found int the kubeadm manual.
After some time, all contiv containers should enter the running state:
root@cvpp:/home/jan# kubectl get pods -n kube-system -o wide | grep contiv NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE contiv-etcd-gwc84 1/1 Running 0 14h 192.168.56.106 cvpp contiv-ksr-5c2vk 1/1 Running 2 14h 192.168.56.106 cvpp contiv-vswitch-h6759 2/2 Running 0 14h 192.168.56.105 cvpp-slave2 contiv-vswitch-l59nv 2/2 Running 0 14h 192.168.56.106 cvpp etcd-cvpp 1/1 Running 0 14h 192.168.56.106 cvpp kube-apiserver-cvpp 1/1 Running 0 14h 192.168.56.106 cvpp kube-controller-manager-cvpp 1/1 Running 0 14h 192.168.56.106 cvpp kube-dns-545bc4bfd4-fr6j9 3/3 Running 0 14h 10.1.134.2 cvpp kube-proxy-q8sv2 1/1 Running 0 14h 192.168.56.106 cvpp kube-proxy-s8kv9 1/1 Running 0 14h 192.168.56.105 cvpp-slave2 kube-scheduler-cvpp 1/1 Running 0 14h 192.168.56.106 cvpp
In particular, verify that a vswitch pod and a kube-proxy pod is running on each joined node, as shown above.
On each joined node, verify that the VPP successfully grabbed the network
interface specified in the VPP startup config (
$ sudo vppctl vpp# sh inter Name Idx State Counter Count GigabitEthernet0/4/0 1 up ...
From the vpp CLI on a joined node you can also ping kube-dns to verify node-to-node connectivity. For example:
vpp# ping 10.1.134.2 64 bytes from 10.1.134.2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=.1557 ms 64 bytes from 10.1.134.2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=.1339 ms 64 bytes from 10.1.134.2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=.1295 ms 64 bytes from 10.1.134.2: icmp_seq=4 ttl=64 time=.1714 ms 64 bytes from 10.1.134.2: icmp_seq=5 ttl=64 time=.1317 ms Statistics: 5 sent, 5 received, 0% packet loss
Deploying Example Applications¶
You can go ahead and create a simple deployment:
$ kubectl run nginx --image=nginx --replicas=2
kubectl describe pod to get the IP address of a pod, e.g.:
$ kubectl describe pod nginx | grep IP
You should see two ip addresses, for example:
IP: 10.1.1.3 IP: 10.1.1.4
You can check the pods’ connectivity in one of the following ways:
Connect to the VPP debug CLI and ping any pod:
sudo vppctl vpp# ping 10.1.1.3
Start busybox and ping any pod:
kubectl run busybox --rm -ti --image=busybox /bin/sh If you don't see a command prompt, try pressing enter. / # / # ping 10.1.1.3
You should be able to ping any pod from the host:
Deploying Pods on Different Nodes¶
to enable pod deployment on the master, untaint the master first:
kubectl taint nodes --all node-role.kubernetes.io/master-
In order to verify inter-node pod connectivity, we need to tell Kubernetes to deploy one pod on the master node and one POD on the worker. For this, we can use node selectors.
In your deployment YAMLs, add the
nodeSelector sections that refer to
preferred node hostnames, e.g.:
nodeSelector: kubernetes.io/hostname: vm5
Example of whole JSONs:
apiVersion: v1 kind: Pod metadata: name: nginx1 spec: nodeSelector: kubernetes.io/hostname: vm5 containers: - name: nginx : nginx
apiVersion: v1 kind: Pod metadata: name: nginx2 spec: nodeSelector: kubernetes.io/hostname: vm6 containers: - name: nginx image: nginx
After deploying the JSONs, verify they were deployed on different hosts:
$ kubectl get pods -o wide NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE nginx1 1/1 Running 0 13m 10.1.36.2 vm5 nginx2 1/1 Running 0 13m 10.1.219.3 vm6
Now you can verify the connectivity to both nginx PODs from a busybox POD:
kubectl run busybox --rm -it --image=busybox /bin/sh / # wget 10.1.36.2 Connecting to 10.1.36.2 (10.1.36.2:80) index.html 100% |*******************************************************************************************************************************************************************| 612 0:00:00 ETA / # rm index.html / # wget 10.1.219.3 Connecting to 10.1.219.3 (10.1.219.3:80) index.html 100% |*******************************************************************************************************************************************************************| 612 0:00:00 ETA
To uninstall the network plugin itself, use
kubectl delete -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/contiv/vpp/master/k8s/contiv-vpp.yaml
Tearing down Kubernetes¶
First, drain the node and make sure that the node is empty before shutting it down:
kubectl drain <node name> --delete-local-data --force --ignore-daemonsets kubectl delete node <node name>
Next, on the node being removed, reset all kubeadm installed state:
rm -rf $HOME/.kube sudo su kubeadm reset
If you added environment variable definitions into
/etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d/10-kubeadm.conf, this would have been a process from the Custom Management Network file, then remove the definitions now.
Some of the issues that can occur during the installation are:
Forgetting to create and initialize the
.kubedirectory in your home directory (As instructed by
kubeadm init --token-ttl 0). This can manifest itself as the following error:
W1017 09:25:43.403159 2233 factory_object_mapping.go:423] Failed to download OpenAPI (Get https://192.168.209.128:6443/swagger-2.0.0.pb-v1: x509: certificate signed by unknown authority (possibly because of "crypto/rsa: verification error" while trying to verify candidate authority certificate "kubernetes")), falling back to swagger Unable to connect to the server: x509: certificate signed by unknown authority (possibly because of "crypto/rsa: verification error" while trying to verify candidate authority certificate "kubernetes")
Previous installation lingering on the file system.
'kubeadm init --token-ttl 0fails to initialize kubelet with one or more of the following error messages:
... [kubelet-check] It seems like the kubelet isn't running or healthy. [kubelet-check] The HTTP call equal to 'curl -sSL http://localhost:10255/healthz' failed with error: Get http://localhost:10255/healthz: dial tcp [::1]:10255: getsockopt: connection refused. ...
If you run into any of the above issues, try to clean up and reinstall as root:
sudo su rm -rf $HOME/.kube kubeadm reset kubeadm init --token-ttl 0 rm -rf /var/etcd/contiv-data rm -rf /var/bolt/bolt.db
Contiv-specific kubeadm installation on Aarch64¶
Supplemental instructions apply when using Contiv-VPP for Aarch64. Most installation steps for Aarch64 are the same as that described earlier in this chapter, so you should firstly read it before you start the installation on Aarch64 platform.
Use the Aarch64-specific kubeadm install instructions to manually install Kubernetes with Contiv-VPP networking on one or more bare-metals of Aarch64 platform.